On a route from whole genome duplication to aneuploidy and cancer: consequences and adaptations

  • Whole genome duplication (WGD) is commonly accepted as an intermediate state between healthy cells and aneuploid cancer cells. Usually, cells after WGD get removed from the replicating pool by p53-dependent cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Cells, which are able to bypass these mechanisms exhibit chromosomal instability (CIN) and DNA damage, promoting the formation of highly aneuploid karyotypes. In general, WGD favors several detrimental consequences such as increased drug resistance, transformation and metastasis formation. Therefore, it is of special interest to investigate the limiting factors and consequences of tetraploid proliferation as well as the adaptations to WGD. In the past it has been difficult to study the consequences of such large-scale genomic changes and how cells adapt to tetraploidy in order to survive. Our lab established protocols to generate tetraploids as well as isolated post-tetraploid/aneuploid single cells clones derived from euploid parental cell lines after induction of cytokinesis failure. This system enables to study the consequences and adaptations of WGD in newly generated tetraploid cells and evolved post-tetraploid clones in comparison to their isogenic parental cell line. Using newly generated tetraploids from HCT116 cells, we identified USP28 and SPINT2 as novel factors limiting the proliferation after WGD. Using mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation, we revealed an interaction between USP28 and NuMA1 upon WGD, which affects centrosome coalescence of supernumerary centrosomes, an important process that enhances survival of tetraploids. Furthermore, we validated the occurrence of DNA damage in tetraploid cells and found that USP28 depletion diminished the DNA damage dependent checkpoint activation. SPINT2 influences the proliferation after WGD by regulating the transcription of CDKN1A via histone acetylation. Following proliferating tetraploid cells, we confirmed the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) by immunoblotting and microscopic approaches. Furthermore, we show that the DDR in the arising post-tetraploid clones is reduced. Further experiments verified the appearance of severe mitotic aberrations, replication stress and accumulation of reactive oxygen species in newly generated tetraploids as well as in the aneuploid cancer cells contributing to the occurrence of DNA damage. Using various drug treatments, we observed an increased dependency on the spindle assembly checkpoint in aneuploid cancer cells compared to their diploid parental cell line. Additionally, siRNA knock down experiments revealed the kinesin motor protein KIF18A as an essential protein in aneuploid cells. Taken together, the results point out cellular consequences of proliferation after tetraploidization as well as the cellular adaptations needed to cope with the increased amount of DNA.

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Author:Sara Bernhard
Advisor:Zuzana Storchova
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language of publication:English
Publication Date:2022/01/30
Year of Publication:2022
Publishing Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Granting Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Acceptance Date of the Thesis:2022/01/28
Date of the Publication (Server):2022/01/31
Number of page:137
Faculties / Organisational entities:Kaiserslautern - Fachbereich Biologie
DDC-Cassification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
Licence (German):Creative Commons 4.0 - Namensnennung, nicht kommerziell, keine Bearbeitung (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)