Combining Parameterizations, Sobolev Methods and Shape Hessian Approximations for Aerodynamic Design Optimization

  • Aerodynamic design optimization, considered in this thesis, is a large and complex area spanning different disciplines from mathematics to engineering. To perform optimizations on industrially relevant test cases, various algorithms and techniques have been proposed throughout the literature, including the Sobolev smoothing of gradients. This thesis combines the Sobolev methodology for PDE constrained flow problems with the parameterization of the computational grid and interprets the resulting matrix as an approximation of the reduced shape Hessian. Traditionally, Sobolev gradient methods help prevent a loss of regularity and reduce high-frequency noise in the derivative calculation. Such a reinterpretation of the gradient in a different Hilbert space can be seen as a shape Hessian approximation. In the past, such approaches have been formulated in a non-parametric setting, while industrially relevant applications usually have a parameterized setting. In this thesis, the presence of a design parameterization for the shape description is explicitly considered. This research aims to demonstrate how a combination of Sobolev methods and parameterization can be done successfully, using a novel mathematical result based on the generalized Faà di Bruno formula. Such a formulation can yield benefits even if a smooth parameterization is already used. The results obtained allow for the formulation of an efficient and flexible optimization strategy, which can incorporate the Sobolev smoothing procedure for test cases where a parameterization describes the shape, e.g., a CAD model, and where additional constraints on the geometry and the flow are to be considered. Furthermore, the algorithm is also extended to One Shot optimization methods. One Shot algorithms are a tool for simultaneous analysis and design when dealing with inexact flow and adjoint solutions in a PDE constrained optimization. The proposed parameterized Sobolev smoothing approach is especially beneficial in such a setting to ensure a fast and robust convergence towards an optimal design. Key features of the implementation of the algorithms developed herein are pointed out, including the construction of the Laplace-Beltrami operator via finite elements and an efficient evaluation of the parameterization Jacobian using algorithmic differentiation. The newly derived algorithms are applied to relevant test cases featuring drag minimization problems, particularly for three-dimensional flows with turbulent RANS equations. These problems include additional constraints on the flow, e.g., constant lift, and the geometry, e.g., minimal thickness. The Sobolev smoothing combined with the parameterization is applied in classical and One Shot optimization settings and is compared to other traditional optimization algorithms. The numerical results show a performance improvement in runtime for the new combined algorithm over a classical Quasi-Newton scheme.

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Author:Thomas Karl Oskar DickORCiD
Advisor:Nicolas Ralph GaugerORCiD
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language of publication:English
Publication Date:2022/10/27
Date of Publication:2022/10/27
Publishing Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Granting Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Acceptance Date of the Thesis:2022/10/14
Date of the Publication (Server):2022/11/03
Number of page:X, 152
Faculties / Organisational entities:Kaiserslautern - Fachbereich Mathematik
DDC-Cassification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 510 Mathematik
MSC-Classification (mathematics):49-XX CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS AND OPTIMAL CONTROL; OPTIMIZATION [See also 34H05, 34K35, 65Kxx, 90Cxx, 93-XX]
Licence (German):Creative Commons 4.0 - Namensnennung, nicht kommerziell (CC BY-NC 4.0)