Design Problems in Large-Scale, Time-Sensitive WSNs

  • There is a growing trend for ever larger wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consisting of thousands or tens of thousands of sensor nodes (e.g., [91, 79]). We believe this trend will continue and thus scalability plays a crucial role in all protocols and mechanisms for WSNs. Another trend in many modern WSN applications is the time sensitivity to information from sensors to sinks. In particular, WSNs are a central part of the vision of cyber-physical systems and as these are basically closed-loop systems many WSN applications will have to operate under stringent timing requirements. Hence, it is crucial to develop algorithms that minimize the worst-case delay in WSNs. In addition, almost all WSNs consist of battery-powered nodes, and thus energy-efficiency clearly remains another premier goal in order to keep network lifetime high. This dissertation presents and evaluates designs for WSNs using multiple sinks to achieve high lifetime and low delay. Firstly, we investigate random and deterministic node placement strategies for large-scale and time-sensitive WSNs. In particular, we focus on tiling-based deterministic node placement strategies and analyze their effects on coverage, lifetime, and delay performance under both exact placement and stochastically disturbed placement. Next, we present sink placement strategies, which constitutes the main contributions of this dissertation. Static sinks will be placed and mobile sinks will be given a trajectory. A proper sink placement strategy can improve the performance of a WSN significantly. In general, the optimal sink placement with lifetime maximization is an NP-hard problem. The problem is even harder if delay is taken into account. In order to achieve both lifetime and delay goals, we focus on the problem of placing multiple (static) sinks such that the maximum worst-case delay is minimized while keeping the energy consumption as low as possible. Different target networks may need a corresponding sink placement strategy under differing levels of apriori assumptions. Therefore, we first develop an algorithm based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) paradigm for known sensor nodes' locations. For a network where global information is not feasible we introduce a self-organized sink placement (SOSP) strategy. While GA-based sink placement achieves a near-optimal solution, SOSP provides a good sink placement strategy with a lower communication overhead. How to plan the trajectories of many mobile sinks in very large WSNs in order to simultaneously achieve lifetime and delay goals had not been treated so far in the literature. Therefore, we delve into this difficult problem and propose a heuristic framework using multiple orbits for the sinks' trajectories. The framework is designed based on geometric arguments to achieve both, high lifetime and low delay. In simulations, we compare two different instances of our framework, one conceived based on a load-balancing argument and one based on a distance minimization argument, with a set of different competitors spanning from statically placed sinks to battery-state aware strategies. We find our heuristics outperform the competitors in both, lifetime and delay. Furthermore, and probably even more important, the heuristic, while keeping its good delay and lifetime performance, scales well with an increasing number of sinks. In brief, the goal of this dissertation is to show that placing nodes and sinks in conventional WSNs as well as planning trajectories in mobility enabled WSNs carefully really pays off for large-scale and time-sensitive WSNs.

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Author:Wint Yi Poe
Advisor:Jens B. Schmitt, Lars Wolf
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language of publication:English
Date of Publication (online):2013/09/16
Year of first Publication:2013
Publishing Institution:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Granting Institution:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Acceptance Date of the Thesis:2012/11/14
Date of the Publication (Server):2013/09/17
Page Number:XVII, 189
Faculties / Organisational entities:Kaiserslautern - Fachbereich Informatik
CCS-Classification (computer science):C. Computer Systems Organization / C.2 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS / C.2.1 Network Architecture and Design / Wireless communication (NEW)
DDC-Cassification:0 Allgemeines, Informatik, Informationswissenschaft / 004 Informatik
Licence (German):Standard gemäß KLUEDO-Leitlinien vom 10.09.2012