Time-Slotted Schedule-based Channel Sensing in 802.11 Ad-hoc Networks

  • The wireless spectrum is already a scarce good, shared by multiple competing technologies such as Bluetooth, ZigBee and Wi-Fi, and the hunger for traffic is only increasing. Due to the heterogeneity of the existing wireless technologies and the real threat that interference poses to network performance, sophisticated techniques must be developed to ensure acceptable levels of quality of service. In this thesis, we present a passive channel sensing scheme based on both energy and signal detection, that primarily considers the spectrum occupation of foreign traffic while allowing for additional complementary information such as the signal-to-noise ratio. The resulting channel quality metric is first corrected for the spectrum occupation of internal transmissions and later aggregated with help of a moving average followed by an exponential weighted moving average. This aggregation keeps the metric both sufficiently stable and adaptive to significant changes in channel usage. Moreover, the channel quality metric is made volatility-aware by penalizing qualities proportionally to their downward volatility. This yields a conservative metric and allows to differentiate channels with similar aggregated qualities but different volatility behavior. Our second main contribution is in the form of a schedule-based channel sensing protocol, in which nodes possess two network interfaces, one for communication and one for channel sensing. Channel sensing schedules are derived from communication schedules, i.e. channel hopping sequences used for communication, with help of a stochastic local search-based heuristic that attempts to minimize channel sensing bias, the channel overlap between both schedules and to maximize overlap fairness. This minimizes the effect of internal transmissions in the resulting channel quality metric, allowing nodes to derive channel quality primarily based on foreign traffic in an unbiased manner. Finally, we propose and implement a stabilization protocol for keeping nodes in an ad-hoc network tick-synchronized and schedule-consistent w.r.t. a communication schedule. This stabilization protocol makes use of special messages, namely tick frames for synchronization, channel quality reports for sharing local views of channel conditions and schedule reports for disseminating the global communication hopping sequence. The communication schedules are computed by a master node based on an aggregation of local channel quality views and the re-computation of these schedules is triggered by significant changes in channel conditions. The resulting protocol is robust against changes in topology and channel conditions.

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Author:Paulo Fernando Aragao Alves Junior
Advisor:Reinhard Gotzhein
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language of publication:English
Publication Date:2022/10/10
Date of Publication:2022/10/10
Publishing Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Granting Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Acceptance Date of the Thesis:2022/09/26
Date of the Publication (Server):2022/10/11
Tag:Ad-hoc networks; Channel hopping; Channel sensing; Time-slotted; Wi-Fi
GND-Keyword:Frequenzsprungverfahren; Ad-hoc-Netz
Number of page:XXI, 230
Faculties / Organisational entities:Kaiserslautern - Fachbereich Informatik
DDC-Cassification:0 Allgemeines, Informatik, Informationswissenschaft / 004 Informatik
Licence (German):Creative Commons 4.0 - Namensnennung, nicht kommerziell, keine Bearbeitung (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)