Dynamics of polaron formation in 1D Bose gases in the strong-coupling regime

  • We discuss the dynamics of the formation of a Bose polaron when an impurity is injected into a weakly interacting one-dimensional Bose condensate. While for small impurity-boson couplings this process can be described within the Froehlich model as generation, emission and binding of Bogoliubov phonons, this is no longer adequate if the coupling becomes strong. To treat this regime we consider a mean-field approach beyond the Froehlich model which accounts for the backaction to the condensate, complemented with Truncated Wigner simulations to include quantum fluctuation. For the stationary polaron we find a periodic energy-momentum relation and non-monotonous relation between impurity velocity and polaron momentum including regions of negative impurity velocity. Studying the polaron formation after turning on the impurity-boson coupling quasi-adiabatically and in a sudden quench, we find a very rich scenario of dynamical regimes. Due to the build-up of an effective mass, the impurity is slowed down even if its initial velocity is below the Landau critical value. For larger initial velocities we find deceleration and even backscattering caused by emission of density waves or grey solitons and subsequent formation of stationary polaron states in different momentum sectors. In order to analyze the effect of quantum fluctuations we consider a trapped condensate to avoid 1D infrared divergencies. Using Truncated Wigner simulations in this case we show under what conditions the influence of quantum fluctuations is small.

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Author:Martin WillORCiD, Michael FleischhauerORCiD
Parent Title (English):New Journal of Physics
Document Type:Article
Language of publication:English
Date of Publication (online):2024/04/30
Year of first Publication:2023
Publishing Institution:Rheinland-Pfälzische Technische Universität Kaiserslautern-Landau
Date of the Publication (Server):2024/04/30
Page Number:16
Faculties / Organisational entities:Kaiserslautern - Fachbereich Physik
DDC-Cassification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 530 Physik
Licence (German):Zweitveröffentlichung