TimeFrame: A Novel Framework for Interpretable and Privacy-Preserving Deep Learning for Time Series Analysis

  • During our daily lives, we are confronted with vast amounts of data, the processing of which can dramatically influence our lives, both positively and negatively. The enormous amount of data (images, texts, tables, and time series), its variety and possible applications are not always obvious. Due to advancements in the internet of things (IoT), there exist billions of sensors that produce time series which can be found everywhere, whether in medicine, the financial sector or the agricultural economy. This incredible amount of time series data has many hidden features which are useful for industry as well as for daily use, e.g. improving the cancer prediction can save real human lives. Recently, several deep learning methods have been proposed for analyzing this time series data. However, due to their black box nature, their applicability is limited in critical sectors like medicine, finance, and communication. In addition, it is now a compulsion as per artificial intelligence (AI) Act and per General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to protect any sensitive data and provide explanations in safety-critical domains. To enable use of DNNs in a broader domain scope, this thesis presents a framework for privacy-preserved and interpretable time series analysis. TimeFrame consists of four main components, namely, post-hoc interpretability, intrinsic interpretability, direct privacy, and indirect privacy. Interpretability is indispensable to avoid damaging people or the infrastructure. In the past years, the development mostly focused on image data, which prevented the full potential of DNNs in time series processing from being exploited. To overcome this limitation, TimeFrame introduces five (Time to Focus, TSViz, TimeREISE, TSInsight, Data Lens) novel post-hoc and two (PatchX, P2ExNet) novel intrinsic interpretability components. TimeFrame addresses multiple perspectives such as attribution, compression, visualization, influence, prototyping, and hierarchical splitting. Compared to existing methods, the components show better explanations, robustness, and scalability. Another crucial factor is the privacy when dealing with sensitive data and deep learning. In this context, TimeFrame introduces two (PPML, PPML x XAI) components for direct and one (From Private to Public) component for indirect privacy. These components benchmark privacy approaches, their effect on interpretability, and the synthetic generation of data to overcome privacy concerns. TimeFrame offers a large set of interpretability and privacy components that can be combined and consider numerous different aspects. Furthermore, the novel approaches have shown to consistently outperform twenty existing state-of-the-art methods across up to 20 different datasets. To guarantee the fairness, various metrics were used including performance change, Sensitivity, Infidelity, Continuity, runtime, model dependency, compression rate, and others. This broad set of metrics makes it possible to provide guidelines for a more appropriate use of existing state-of-the-art approaches as well as the novel components included in TimeFrame.

Download full text files

Export metadata

Author:Dominique Mercier
Advisor:Andreas Dengel, Sebastian Vollmer
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Cumulative document:Yes
Language of publication:English
Publication Date:2023/10/30
Year of Publication:2023
Publishing Institute:Rheinland-Pfälzische Technische Universität Kaiserslautern-Landau
Granting Institute:Rheinland-Pfälzische Technische Universität Kaiserslautern-Landau
Acceptance Date of the Thesis:2023/09/20
Date of the Publication (Server):2023/11/02
GND-Keyword:Artificial Intelligence; Time Series; Deep Learning; Explainability; Privacy
Number of page:XIII, 236
Faculties / Organisational entities:Kaiserslautern - Fachbereich Informatik
CCS-Classification (computer science):I. Computing Methodologies / I.2 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE / I.2.0 General
I. Computing Methodologies / I.2 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE / I.2.6 Learning (K.3.2)
I. Computing Methodologies / I.2 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE / I.2.11 Distributed Artificial Intelligence
DDC-Cassification:0 Allgemeines, Informatik, Informationswissenschaft / 004 Informatik
Licence (German):Creative Commons 4.0 - Namensnennung, nicht kommerziell, keine Bearbeitung (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)